Understanding Hepatitis-Diagnosis and Treatment
May 1, 2015
Understanding Hepatitis -- Diagnosis and Treatment
How Do I Know If I Have Hepatitis?
Viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis A (HAV), is diagnosed by your symptoms, a physical exam, and blood tests. Someties imaging studies such as a sonogram or CAT scan and a liver biopsy are also used.
Hepatitis: Who's at Risk?
For hepatitis C, the CDC recommends that you have a blood test if any of the following is true:
- You have received an organ transplant or transfusion in the past.
- You have been notified that you received blood or an organ transplant from a donor who later tested positive for the disease
- You have ever injected drugs, even once many years ago
- You received a blood transfusion or an organ transplant before July 1992
- You received a blood product used to treat clotting problems that was made before 1987
- You were born between 1945 and 1965
- You have had long-term kidney dialysis
- You have signs or symptoms of liver disease
- You have HIV
- You have a known exposure to HCV
- You have persistent elevations of a liver blood test called ALT (alanine aminotransferase levels)
Other people for whom hepatitis C virus testing is indicated include:
- Children born to HCV-positive mothers
- Hospital and other health care facility workers after a needle stick or exposure to the blood of a person with HCV
- Public safety and emergency medical workers after a needle stick or exposure to the blood of a person with HCV
The following people who are at increased risk for contracting hepatitis B virus include:
- People who received a blood or a blood-product transfusion prior to 1972
- Hospital and health care workers
- Household members of an infected person
- Intravenous drugs users (both present and former users)
- People who have had a tattoo or a body part pierced with an infected needle
- Sex partners of infected people
- Travelers to countries where HBV is endemic
- People who were born to a mother infected with HBV
- Transplant-organ recipients who received an infected organ
The following groups of people should be screened for hepatitis B virus:
- People born in areas where HBV is endemic
- Men who have sex with men
- Intravenous drug users (both present and former users)
- Dialysis patients
- HIV-infected people
- Pregnant women
- Family members, household members, and sex partners of HBV-infected people (even if sex occurred on only one occasion)
- People who have had more than one sex partner within 6 months
Otherwise, routine screening for hepatitis typically is not recommended unless you have symptoms or signs (such as abnormal liver-related blood tests) of the condition.
What If I Have Symptoms of Viral Hepatitis?
If you have symptoms or signs of viral hepatitis, your health care provider can perform a blood test to check for the presence of an antibody. If you have hepatitis, more blood samples may be necessary later -- even if the symptoms have vanished -- to check for complications and determine if you have progressed from acute (infected within the past six months) to chronic (having the virus for greater than six months) disease. Most people have vague or no symptoms at all; hence, viral hepatitis is often referred to as a silent disease.
Your health care provider may also require a liverbiopsy, or tissue sample, in order to determine the extent of the damage. A biopsy is commonly performed by inserting a needle into the liver and drawing out a fragment of tissue, which is then sent to a lab to be analyzed.
What Are the Treatments for Viral Hepatitis?
The treatment for viral hepatitis depends on the type and stage of the infection. Over the last several years, excellent treatments for both hepatitis B and C have become available. More and improved treatments are being evaluated all the time.
Your primary care doctor should be able to provide adequate care of your hepatitis. However, if you have severe hepatitis, you may require treatment by a hepatologist or gastroenterologist -- specialists in diseases of the liver. Hospitalization is normally unnecessary unless you cannot eat or drink or are vomiting.